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In contrast, liver cirrhosis was the leading underlying disease in TB peritonitis. Fever and gastrointestinal/abdominal symptoms were the most common presentations, which were not significantly different between the TB and NTM groups. Those with NTM peritonitis had lower percentages of lymphocytes (p 0.004) and lower albumin levels (p 0.020) in ascites (Table?4). Compared with patients in the ��possible�� NTM group, those in the ��probable�� NTM group were more likely to have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (63% vs. 0%, p?<0.001), fever (25% vs. 0%, p 0.021) and a lower serum albumin level (2.4 vs. 3.1?g/dL, p 0.030). Patients in the ��probable�� group were also more likely to receive treatment (63% vs. 0%, p?<0.001), but less likely to have malignancy (38% vs. 82%, p 0.025) (Supporting Information). Abdominal computed <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alkannin">Alkannin</a> tomography (CT) was performed in 31 (48%) TB and 10 (40%) NTM peritonitis patients. Of them, 13?TB and three NTM peritonitis patients had massive amounts of ascites. The ascites was complex and septated in one TB patient, while two TB patients and one NTM patient had nodules in the omentum. One TB patient and two NTM patients had intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy. Seven patients with NTM peritonitis <a href="http://www.selleckchem.com/screening/mapk-library.html">MAPK Inhibitor Library</a> received colonoscopy, which showed non-specific colitis in three. Of the TB peritonitis patients, eight underwent colonoscopy and three received endoscopic biopsy, which showed chronic colitis in two and non-specific colitis in one. Ten patients with TB peritonitis received peritoneal biopsy by either laparoscopy (n?=?6), laparotomy (n?=?3), or image-guidance (n?=?1). <a href="http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Metformin-hydrochloride(Glucophage).html">www.selleckchem.com</a> Except for the image-guided biopsy showing chronic inflammation, the others reported typical pathological findings, including granulomatous inflammation in nine, acid-fast bacilli in six, and caseous necrosis in four. Another three TB patients received intra-abdominal biopsy (one each from the ovary, lymph node and small intestine) and all had typical pathological findings. One NTM patient had an intra-abdominal lymph node biopsy, which showed granulomatous inflammation with acid-fast bacilli. Another NTM patient had a liver biopsy, which revealed inflammation with acid-fast bacilli. Within the 6-month follow-up, 12 (48%) NTM and 21 (32%) TB peritonitis patients died of multiple organ failure without evidence of aetiologies or pathogens other than mycobacteria. Among them, 10 (83%) NTM and 16 (76%) TB peritonitis patients died before the results of the ascites culture became available. In the NTM group, the 6-month mortality rate was similar in those with malignancy (53%), AIDS (40%), liver cirrhosis (57%) and diabetes mellitus (50%). NTM patients with malignancy had an insignificantly higher mortality rate than TB patients with malignancy (9 (53%) vs. 4 (25%), p 0.101). Similar findings were noted in patients with AIDS (2 (40%) vs. 0, p 0.206), liver cirrhosis (4 (57%) vs.
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