Among Betaproteobacteria, four sequences were identified as members of the genus Thiobacillus. The Gammaproteobacteria were dominated by a large cluster with <a href="http://www.selleck.cn/products/torin-1.html
">Torin1</a> sequences identified as Acidithiobacillus (22), showing that the bacterial community at the 6-year-old site �C despite the presence of members of different microbial taxa �C was highly uneven and dominated by members of this single genus comprising 40% of all clones. Within the genus, clone sequences formed separate subclusters that clustered closely with sequences identified previously as either the A. ferrooxidans, the Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans or with sequences of uncultured acidithiobacilli, while sequences related to Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans were not recovered (Fig. S1). Another cluster within the Gammaproteobacteria comprised five clones with closely related sequences showing similarity values of only <95% for the closest GenBank entries that likely represent a so far unknown taxon. This group was probably responsible for the positive signals of the probes PseuD and Pseu1 designed to target Pseudomonas spp. (weighted mismatch 2.2, ��G0=?34.0?kcal?mol?1 for Pseu1, and weighted mismatch 2.5, ��G0=?42.4?kcal?mol?1 for PseuD). Quantitative PCR showed that the A. ferrooxidans was virtually absent at other sites than the youngest one. <a href="http://www.selleckchem.com/B-Raf.html
">Raf tumor</a> While the 6-year-old site contained 0.052�C0.143?ng?A. ferrooxidans?DNA?ng?1 of total bacterial DNA, at all other sites, A. ferrooxidans DNA was never recorded in all samples and its content was always <0.0004?ng?ng?1 bacterial DNA. In the last decades, the study of succession processes in soils became highly important in ecosystems that are vulnerable to an increase of global temperature. These ecosystems include the forefields of receding glaciers in different parts of the world <a href="http://www.selleckchem.com/products/abt-199.html
">GDC-0199 solubility dmso</a> in both the mountainous and the polar regions (Kastovska et al., 2005; Bardgett et al., 2007; Noll & Wellinger, 2008; Duc et al., 2009; Fierer et al., 2010). Succession in these ecosystems is severely shaped by the climatic factors and often also by the specific physical quality of the substrate (Kastovska et al., 2005; Schmidt et al., 2008). These extra factors that, for example select the microorganisms able to colonize drying surfaces or are prone to long-term freezing and low temperatures, make it difficult to understand the successional limitations imposed by the nutrient resources of the ecosystem. In this comparison, the postmining sites represent areas where the impact of climate and physical properties does not impose major limitations and where, thus, the nutritional factors are the main drivers of successional processes. Moreover, these ecosystems are quantitatively important in the Central Europe, where postmining deposits are still being created.