Sleep was assessed on a self-chosen sleep/wake schedule, to rule out effects of external constraints. Data from adolescents and young adults with DSPD, aged 16�C25?years, enrolled to participate in a treatment study (NCT00834886) were analysed. Healthy controls were included for comparisons. Participants in both groups were recruited from high schools, colleges and university between 2008 and 2011. Recruitment was based on distribution of the project website address through emails, flyers, posters, media and recruitment meetings in agreement with high school/college/university administrations. Participants in the DSPD group were diagnosed through clinical interviews according to the diagnostic criteria of <a href="http://www.selleckchem.com/products/ve-822.html
</a> the International <a href="http://www.selleck.cn/products/Pazopanib-Hydrochloride.html
">Pazopanib</a> Classification of Sleep Disorders (American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2005), operationalized as (i) problems falling asleep in the evening, (ii) falling asleep after 02:00?hours at least 3?days a week, (iii) ability to sleep until early afternoon, (iv) problems waking up in time for school/studies, (v) early wake-up times associated with extreme daytime sleepiness, (vi) good subjective sleep quality and duration when given the opportunity to sleep and (vii) reporting the above-mentioned sleep problems for more than 6?months. The diagnosis was confirmed by 1?week of sleep diary showing sleep onset later than 02:00?hours at least 3?days per week. Participants in the control group responded ��no�� to items i�Cv, confirmed by 1?week of sleep diary showing sleep onset before midnight at least 3?days per week, later than 02:00?hours no more than 2?days per week, and sleep onset latency >30?min <3?days per week. Participants in both <a href="http://www.selleckchem.com/products/sotrastaurin-aeb071.html
">Selleckchem Sotrastaurin</a> groups were excluded in cases of: sleep disorders other than DSPD, moderate to severe psychopathology [assessed with SCID-I screening interview (First et?al., 1995)], somatic disorders or conditions assumed to affect sleep (i.e. migraine, B12 deficiency), all serious somatic disorders (i.e. rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes), medications or treatments assumed to affect sleep (i.e. sedative antihistamines, antidepressants, hypnotics), substance abuse or night work. No participants had an IQ?<?70 and none were breast feeding or pregnant. Exclusion criteria are summarized in Table?1. Data from 54 adolescents and young adults were analysed, 35 diagnosed with DSPD (DSPD group) and 19 healthy controls (control group). The DSPD group comprised 25 females and 10 males with a mean age of 20.6?years [standard deviation (SD?=?3.1, range 16�C25)], whereas the control group comprised 14 females and five males, mean age 21.1?years (SD?=?2.3, range 16�C25); neither gender nor age differences were significant (gender, P?=?0.86; age, P?=?0.47). Consent forms were signed prior to participation in the study. When participants were <18?years, written and verbal consent from both the adolescent and the parents were obtained.