The amplitude of the <a href="http://www.selleckchem.com/products/q-vd-oph.html
">Q-VD-Oph mw</a> second EPSC was measured relative to the amplitude of the first EPSC. PPF was measured at two inter-stimulus intervals, 50 and 80 ms. Twenty traces were collected for each inter-stimulus interval. MK-801 experiments were performed at +40 mV holding potential as described previously (Schoch et al, 2002); in the presence of 50 ��M picrotoxin and 10 ��M NBQX to isolate NMDA-R-mediated responses. Baseline responses were collected for 8 min before MK-801 wash-in. If baseline responses changed >20%, experiments were terminated. Once a stable baseline was achieved, MK-801 was washed into the recording chamber. MK-801 was perfused into the chamber for at least 6 min without stimulation. After 6 min, stimulation was resumed and the rate of the NMDA-R EPSC block was monitored. The time constant of decay was calculated using a double exponential function: A1exp(?t/��1)+A2exp(?t/��2) (Wasling et al, 2004). AMPA-R-mediated current�Cvoltage experiments were conducted with 50 ��M picrotoxin and 50 ��M AP5 in the ACSF and 0.1 mM <a href="http://www.selleck.cn/products/sunitinib.html
">Sunitinib</a> spermine added to the internal solution. Six to eight traces were collected and averaged at each holding potential. Summary graph was constructed by normalizing all values to the AMPA-R EPSC at ?80 mV. Rectification index was calculated as the AMPA-R-mediated response at +40/?40 mV. For all whole-cell recordings, membrane statistics were monitored after each trace. All evoked whole-cell recordings were collected at 0.1 Hz. Whole-cell recording criteria were as follows: Ra was <25 M�� and cells were rejected if Ra or Rm changed >20% over the course of the experiment. All recordings were digitized at 10 kHz and filtered at 2 kHz. Recordings were monitored with a Multiclamp 700B (Molecular Devices) and analysed offline using pClamp (Molecular Devices). Statistical significance of data was evaluated using a Student's t-test. For cumulative probability plots, a Kolmogorov�CSmirnov test with a significance of P<0.05 was used. All experiments were performed on male wild-type <a href="http://www.selleckchem.com/products/bay-61-3606.html
">BAY-61-3606 cost</a> and NL3R704C littermate pairs. All recordings and analysis were done with experimenter blind to genotype. Cell culture electrophysiology was done as described previously (Maximov et al, 2007, 2009; Xu et al, 2009; Zhang et al, 2009) and with similar criteria to the aforementioned acute slice electrophysiology. Briefly, recordings were performed on DIV14-16 hippocampal cultures. Evoked synaptic responses were triggered with a homemade bipolar electrode. The stimulus electrode was placed 150 ��m from soma of patched neuron. Stimulus intensity was adjusted to achieve maximal synaptic responses for each cell. Cells were patched with a modified internal solution (in mM: 117.5 CsMeSO4, 10 HEPES, 10 TEA-Cl, 15.5 CsCl, 1 MgCl2, 10 Na-phosphocreatine, 8 NaCl, 0.3 NaGTP, 4 MgATP, 5 EGTA and 5 QX-314). Recordings were performed in modified ACSF (in mM: 126 NaCl; 3 KCl; 1.